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[ASTM Library]  [ ASTM Reference Chart ]  [ Pipe Specifications]  [ >Metallurgy]

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Return To TopACID ETCH TEST. The application of a suitable acid to a metal surface for the purpose of determining the existence of surface imperfections, non-metallic inclusions, grain flow, grain size, and chemical segregation.

Return To TopALLOWABLE STRESS. A percentage of minimum yield stress taking into consideration suitable safety factors.

Return To TopALLOYING ELEMENTS. Elements which when added to steel and other primary metals in controlled amounts improve the properties of these materials.

Return To TopALPHA IRON. The solid crystalline form of iron that is stable and exists below 1670 F. It is characterized by a body-centered cubic structure.

Return To TopALUMINUM. A metallic element approximately 65% lighter in weight than iron. It is used as a structural material when alloyed with other elements, or used as a deoxidizer and grain refiner in steels.

Return To TopANNEALING. A softening treatment consisting of heating carbon or alloy steel to an appropriate temperature, holding at the temperature for a proper period of time and slowly cooling to room temperature. Austenitic stainless steels and nonferrous alloys are water quenched.

Return To TopASME. ASME stands for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Return To TopASTM. ASTM stands for the American Society for Testing and Materials.

Return to TopAUSFERRITE. A cast iron matrix microstructure, produced by a controlled thermal process, which consists of predominately acicular ferrite and high carbon austenite. See Austempered Ductile Iron.

Return To TopAUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON. A ductile cast iron that has been produced by a controlled thermal process which results in a matrix microstructure consisting of mainly acicular ferrite and high carbon austenite.

Return To TopAUSTENITE. A solid solution in which gamma iron (face centered crystal structure) is the solvent. In low carbon steel austenite exists above 1670 F (910 C). In austinetic stainless steels austenite exists between room temperature and the melting point.

Return To TopAUSTENITIC. A stainless steel or other single phase alloy which has a stable austenite structure between room temperature and the melting point.

Return To TopAUSTENITE GRAIN SIZE. This is the size of the grains of steel observed when the steel is heated to 1700 F and transforms from Alpha Iron (ferrite which exists at room termperature) to Gamma Iron (austenite which exists above 1600 F). The melt practice employed by the steel mill determines whether the steel will be coarse grain ASTM E 112 micro grain size 1-4, or fine grain ASTM E 112 micro grain size 5-8. The use of silicon as a deoxidizer in the melt practice normally produces coarse grain steel, where as, the proper addition of aluminum after silicon deoxizidation will produce fine grain steel.

Return To TopAUSTENITIZE. The process of heating a carbon or alloy steel (existing as alpha iron) above 1330 F for partial transformation, or above 1600 F for complete transformation to austenite.

Return To TopBATCH. The component of raw materials properly weighed, proportioned, and mixed for delivery to a processing unit. Also, the product output from a processing unit in which there is essentially no product output until all component materials are charged and processed.

Return To TopBLAST CLEANING. A process for surface cleaning or finishing metals using an air blast to impact abrasive or steel shot particles against the surface to be cleaned of scale, oxides or rust.

Return To TopBRINELL HARDNESS TEST. A popular method for determining the hardness of a piece of metal by pressing a 10 mm hardened steel ball into the ground surface under 500-3000 Kg load. Comparison of the diameter of the impression with that of a known material hardness provides a relative indication of hardness of the piece of metal being tested. The result represents the Brinell hardness number which is the value obtained by dividing the applied load in kilograms by the surface area of the impression in square millimeters.

Return To TopCARBIDE PRECIPITATION. The migration and preferential combination of carbon with chromium in the grain boundaries of certain austenitic stainless steels. This carbide precipitation occurs when one part carbon combines with seventeen parts of chromium while the stainless steel is heated, or cooled, in the 800 F to 1500 F (427 C to 816 C) temperature range.

Return To TopCARBIDES. Compounds formed when carbon combines with one or more metallic elements. For example, in stainless steels when excess chromium carbides form, corrosion resistance can be reduced.

Return To TopCARBON. The principal non-metallic element which when combined with iron in controlled amounts below 2.0% forms the materials known as carbon steels.

Return To TopCARBON EQUIVALENT. A numerical value in weight percent, calculated from a mathematical equation, designed to relate the combined hardening effect of various alloying elements used in making carbon steel to an equivalent amount of carbon. Be reducing the carbon content in the steel and adding controlled amounts of various elements the desired strength levels can be achieved by proper heat treatment. In addition, the steel will have good weldability and low temperature notch toughness. The Carbon Equivalent (CE) formula is:

CE = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15

Depending on customer and industry specifications, CE can be required as low as 0.40% maximum and as high as 0.50% maximum

Return To TopCARBURIZATION. Heating a carbon or alloy steel to the austenitizing temperature while in contact with a carbon rich atmosphere to cause absorption of carbon at the surface.

Return To TopCAST IRON. A generic term for a series of alloys primarily of iron, carbon, and silicon in which the carbon is in excess of the amount which can be retained in solid solution in austenite at the eutectic temperature.

Return To TopCEMENTITE. A form of iron carbide (Fe3C) contained in carbon and alloy steels.

Return To TopCHARPY IMPACT TEST. A series of three notched specimens are impact tested at a selected temperature to determine resistance (rated in foot pounds of energy) to crack initiation in metals. Refer to ASTM A-370 for details on specimen preparation, geometry and testing. See Joule for alternate unit of measurement.

Return To TopCHROMIUM. A metallic element added to steel to improve mechanical properties and increase resistance to oxidation, corrosion and wear. A minimum of 12% chromium is required to produce stainless steel.

Return To TopCOLD WORKING. Deformation of a metal usually at room temperature.

Return To TopCOLUMBIUM. A metallic element added to steel. In small amounts (<0.05%) columbium acts as a grain refiner and improves hot working. In the range of 2-3% it serves as a stabilizer in austenitic stainless steels.

Return To TopCOMPACTED GRAPHITE IRON. A cast iron that has been treated in the liquid state so as to cause its graphitic carbon to occur in the compacted graphite shape in the as-cast condition.

Return To TopCONTINUOUS WELD PIPE (CW). Hot finished pipe produced in continuous length from coiled skelp by forming rolls that shape the furnace heated skelp and form a butt weld joint by mechanical pressure.

Return To TopCOPPER. A metallic element added to low to medium carbon and low alloy steel to improve resistance to various forms of atmospheric corrosion.

Return To TopCRYOGENIC TEMPERATURE. Any selected temperature below -165 F (-108 C).

Return To TopDIRECT REDUCED IRON. Iron ores that have been reduced to essentially metallic iron by heat and reducing agents, but without melting, and processed into suitable shapes for use as a charge material in a melting operation.

Return To TopDOUBLE SUBMERGED ARC WELDED PIPE (DSAW). Cold finished pipe fabricated from individual lengths of plate which are pressed into a "U" shape and further into on "O" shape. The joint it tack welded and then a complete penetration submerged arc weld is made by the submerged arc welding method on both inside and outside surfaces.

Return To TopDRAWING. See Tempering. This is the old term for tempering and is now considered obsolete.

Return To TopDUAL METAL. Two metals of different composition that are fusion bonded at all interfacial surfaces by casting metal of one composition against metal of a second composition.

Return To TopDUCTILE IRON. A cast iron that has been treated in the liquid state so as to cause substantially all of its graphitic carbon to occur as spheroids or nodules in the as-cast condition.

Return To TopDYE PENETRATION INSPECTION (PT). The metal surface to be examined is coated with a red dyed penetrating oil. This oil is drawn into the surface defects by capillary action. After a sufficient time the excess oil, or dye, is removed from the surface to be examined and a white developer is sprayed over the entire surface. The dye, which has penetrated any surface defects, is drawn to the surface by the developer and the location, geometry and size of the defects can be determined. This test is considered to be non-destructive because it does not destroy the usefulness of the part being inspected.

Return To TopELASTICITY. The ability of a material to stretch without undergoing plastic deformation and permanent distortion.

Return To TopELECTRIC RESISTANCE WELD PIPE (ERW). Cold finished pipe made by a series of operations in which the flat rolled material is cold shaped into tubular form and welded at the seam by the application of pressure and heat. The heat is generated at the seam by the resistance to the flow of electric current applied through electrical contacts or an induction coil.

Return To TopELECTROMAGNETIC TEST (ET). A nondestructive testing method which induces a magnetic field on the pipe under test. Discontinuities in the wall can be found and measured by variations in the surrounding magnetic field.

Return To TopELONGATION. The extent that a material can plastically deform or permanently stretch and experiencing failure. In a tensile test this is stated as percent elongation.

Return To TopERW WELD DUCTILITY TEST. Specimens from ERW pipe are flattened cold between parallel plates. The weld is located 90 degrees to the parallel plates as described in flattening tests.

Return To TopETCHING. The process of applying acids or other reagents to a metallic surfaces for the purpose of revealing structure details or surface characteristics. See Acid Etch Test.

Return To TopFERRITE. A solid solution in which alpha iron (body centered cubic crystal structure) is the solvent. In low carbon steel ferrite exists between room temperature and approximately 1330 F.

Return To TopFERRITIC GRAIN SIZE. This is the size of the ferrite particles which along with pearlite (a lamellar aggregate of fine alternating platelets of ferrite and iron carbide) make up the substructure of each austenite grain in low carbon and alloy steels. When Ferrite Grain Size is specifically required in addition to, or in lieu of, Austenitic Grain Size this requirement should be clearly stated. Ferrite should then reported as ferrite particle size, and not as grain size, to avoid confusing it with austenitic grain size.

Return To TopFERRITIC MALLEABLE. A ferrous alloy that is cast as white iron but which is converted by an appropriate heat treatment to a microstructure of temper carbon embedded in a ferritic matrix essentially free of pearlite and carbide.

Return To TopFINE GRAIN STEEL. Carbon and alloy steels which have been produced by a fine grain melt practice at the steel mill. Modern melt practice employs silicon killing to remove to remove excess oxygen from the molten metal, then sufficient aluminum is added to form aluminum oxides which act as nuclei for the formation of fine austenitic grains.

Return To TopFLAKE GRAPHITE. An irregularly shaped particle of graphite usually appearing in a polished section as curved plates, such as found in gray cast irons.

Return To TopFLARE TEST. A destructive test to check the weld quality and ductility of pipe by tapered expansion over the apex of a cone of specified dimensions, usually 60 degrees.

Return To TopFLATTENING TEST. A destructive test where a ring cut from a length of pipe cold flattened to establish if the ductility, soundness and weld quality (for welded pipe) meet the specific requirements.

Return To TopFOOT POUNDS ENERGY. The impact energy rated in foot pounds of force required to break charpy impact specimens. See Joules as an alternate unit of measurement.

Return To TopFORGED. The process of forming ingots, blooms and billets into wrought shaped products by applying pressure at elevated temperatures using a press. Some austenitic stainless steels and nonferrous alloys are formed at room temperature.

Return To TopFORMED. The process of forming tube or plate into shaped products by applying pressure at elevated temperatures using a press. Some austenitic stainless steels and nonferrous alloys are formed at room temperature.

Return To TopGALVANIZING. The process of applying a coating of zinc to the finished product to provide corrosion protection. The coating can be applied by hot dipping or electrolytic deposition.

Return To TopGAMMA IRON. See Austenite.

Return To TopGRAIN FLOW. The macro-structure characteristics of a part, after polishing and etching, which reveals the principle direction in which the metal has been worked by mechanical methods such as pressing, hammering or rolling.

Return To TopGRAIN SIZE. The term normally applies to the austenitic grain size as determined in carbon and alloy steels by the McQuaid-Ehn test. ASTM E 112 defines methods for rating grain size. When specifying grain size it should be clearly stated when austenitic grain size is required and when ferrite particle size is required.

Return To TopGRAPHITIZATION. The transformation of carbon, during prolonged heating at elevated temperatures, into graphite which embrittles the steel.

Return To TopGRAY IRON. Cast iron that has a relatively large proportion of the graphitic carbon present in the form of flake graphite. The metal has a gray fracture.

Return To TopGUIDED-BEND TEST. A test for submerged arc welded pipe where a specimen 1-1/2" x 6" conforming to requirements is bent approximately 180 degrees in a special jig with maximum bending occurring at the welding zone to check the ductility of the weld, and the heat treated zone.

Return To TopHARDNESS. A measure of the resistance of a material to indent when an indentor of known geometry is impressed against a surface under a given load.

Return To TopHEAT AFFECTED ZONE. This is the thermally affected area of metal immediately adjacent to the weld in a part. Normally welding conditions must be controlled, or some form of preheat of post-heat treatment applied after welding, to assure that this area does not cause premature failure of the part in service.

Return To TopHEAT TREATMENT. This is a predetermined combination of heating and cooling operations applied to a metallic material in the solid state so desired physical and/or mechanical properties are attained. See annealing, normalizing, tempering and stress relieving which are the most common types of heat treatment.

Return To TopHUEY TEST. An accelerated corrosion test designed for evaluating austenitic stainless steels (300 series). The sample approximately 2" long x 1" wide x 1/4" thick is machined and ground on all six sides to remove any disturbed metal. It is weighed and boiled in a nitric acid solution for five 48 hour periods. After each period it is weighed againand measured, and the total weight loss and size reduction is converted into corrosion rate per year. This test may be preceded by the Oxalic Acid Etch Test.

Return To TopHYDROSTATIC TEST. A test where a specific water pressure produces a stress to a percentage of the minimum yield strength in the material. It is applied internally to the full length of pipe to be sure it is free from leaks and capable of withstanding a specific pressure.

Return To TopIMPACT STRENGTH. See Charpy Impact Test.

Return To TopINDUCTION HEATING. A process of heating by electrical induction.

Return To TopINGOT. A casting of metal which has a square, rectangular or round cross-section, and is of sufficient length for rolling or forging into blooms, billets, or slabs, intended for conversion into forged products. In the case of very large parts the ingot may be forged directly into the desired product.

Return To TopINOCULATED IRON. Cast iron, either liquid or solid, to which one or more inoculating alloys have been added while the iron was in the molten state.

Return To TopINOCULATING ALLOY. An alloy added to molten iron for the principle purpose of nucleating a primary phase such as graphite. Inoculating alloys are frequently used to avoid the formation of primary carbide by enhancing the nucleation of graphite.

Return To TopINTERGRANULAR CORROSION. A preferential attack at the grain boundaries. In the case of austenitic stainless steels (300 series) the formation of chromium carbides in the grain boundaries at elevated temperatures depletes the chromium content at the surface of each grain. This leaves the areas around the grains susceptible to certain types of corrosion.

Return To TopIRON. The principle element in carbon, alloy and stainless steels. These steels are called ferrous, or ferrous based, materials.

Return To TopJOMINY HARDNESS TEST. A test designed to determine the ability of a grade of steel to harden by uninterrupted cooling of one end surface of a 1" diameter bar, and measuring the change in hardness from the end of the bar to the point where hardness remains consistently low.

Return To TopJOULE. A unit defining work, or energy, related to Charpy Impact Testing. One Joule is approximately 0.74 foot pounds.

Return To TopKILLED STEEL. Steel which has been treated in the molten state with silicon and/or deoxidizers such as aluminum to reduce the oxygen content of the molten steel to a minimum. This treatment quiets the metal and permits it to densify during solidification. All steels used in the manufacture of flanges and fittings are made.


Return To TopLONGITUDINAL TENSILE TEST. For small diameter sizes full size tubular sections are tested. For larger sizes longitudinal test specimens are obtained from strips cut from the tube. For welded pipe. Specimens are located approximately 90 degrees from the weld.

Return To TopLOT. A finite quantity of a given product manufactured under production conditions that are considered uniform.

Return To TopLOW TEMPERATURE. Any selected temperature between room temperature of 68 F (20 C) and -165 F (-108 C).

Return To TopMACRO-STRUCTURE. The appearance of a cross-section of a part at low magnification, after polishing and acid etching, which reveals grain flow, segregation, soundness and other internal structural characteristics.

Return To TopMAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION (MT). The inspection of a carbon or alloy steel part which has been magnetized and sprayed with fine magnetic particles which will adhere to surface indications such as cracks, laps and seams. This inspection method is not applicable to non-magnetic materials, such as, austenitic stainless steels and nonferrous alloys.

Return To TopMALLEABLE IRON. A cast iron of such composition that it solidifies as white iron, which upon proper heat treatment is converted to a metallic matrix with nodules of temper carbon.

Return To TopMALLEABLEIZE. To convert white iron into malleable iron through an appropriate graphitizing heat treatment.

Return To TopMANGANESE. A metallic element added to steel to increase hardenability, and to combine with excess sulfur to form manganese sulfides which remain solid at elevated temperatures thereby improving the hot workability of steels.

Return To TopMARTENSITE. This phase of steel has the same composition as austenite from which it transformed. The difference being that martensite is a super-saturated solid solution in alpha iron (ferrite) with a body-centered tetragonal crystal lattice. Austenite is a super saturated solid solution of carbon in gamma iron with a face-centered cubic crystal lattice.

Return To TopMARTENSITIC. A stainless steel (400 series) which transforms on cooling from austenite to martensite and remains martensitic at room temperature.

Return To TopMcQUAID-EHN GRAIN SIZE. The austenitic grain size developed in steels by carburizing at 1700 F (927 C) followed by slow cooling and determined in accordance with ASTM method E 112.

Return To TopMECHANICAL TUBING. Tubing used for a variety of mechanical and structural purposes and not necessarily designed for the carrying of fluids or gases under pressure.

Return To TopMICRO ALLOYED STEELS. Grades of plain carbon steel which have been melted with deliberate additions of small quantities of metallic elements known to improve hardenability, tensile properties and impact strength and toughness; without adversely affecting weldability.

Return To TopMICRO-STRUCTURE. The appearance of a metal surface at high magnification (greater than 10 diameters), after fine polishing to remove all scratches and etching, which reveals structural characteristics such as grain size, inclusions, and the amount and configuration of such metal constituents as ferrite, pearlite, austenite and martensite.

Return To TopMILS LATERAL EXPANSION (MLE). The increase in thickness (measured in mils, 1 mil = 0.001") at the surface of a Charpy specimen directly opposite the notch where the narrow edge of the pendulum strikes the specimen during testing. E.g., a full size Charpy specimen has a square 0.394" x 0.394" cross section. If the surface opposite the notch expands after being struck from 0.394" to 0.419", the Mils Lateral Expansion equals 25 MLE. (See ASTM method A 370).

Return To TopMOLYBDENUM. A metallic element added to steel which goes into solid solution and also forms carbides. Molybdenum effectively increases the strength of steel at elevated temperatures and reduces the susceptibility to temper brittleness in chromium steels. It also retards graphitization in steels designed for service at elevated temperatures. In stainless steels it improves resistance to certain types of corrosive media.

Return To TopMOTTLED IRON. A cast iron containing a mixed structure of gray iron and white iron of variable proportions. The fracture has a mottle appearance.

Return To TopNICKEL. A metallic element which forms a solid solution with iron when added to steel. It does not form carbides, but assists in hardening to improve tensile properties and resistance to embrittlement at low temperatures. Nickel in excess of 7% is responsible for making the 300 series stainless steels austenitic.

Return To TopNOBIUM. See Columbium. Nobium is primarily the European word for columbium. It is not accepted for use by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

Return To TopNODULAR GRAPHITE. Spheroid shaped graphite typically found in ductile irons and compact clusters of graphite typically found in malleable irons.

Return To TopNODULARITY. The volumetric proportion of spheroid or nodular graphite to total graphite in a ductile iron or a compacted graphite iron matrix.

Return To TopNODULIZING ALLOY. An alloy added to molten iron for the primary purpose of causing the formation of spheroid graphite during solidification.

Return To TopNORMALIZING. A heat treatment for carbon and alloy steel which involves heating above the upper critical transformation temperature (to approximately 1650 F, 900C), holding at temperature about one hour and cooling to room temperature in still air. This process homogenizes the steel by reducing carbon segregation and refining the ferrite and pearlite micro-constituents of steel. It also reduces the stress differential created when lighter sections of a forged part cool faster than heavier sections, and improves machineability.

Return To TopNOTCH TOUGHNESS. The ability of a steel or other metal alloy containing a notch to resist fracturing under load. See Charpy Impact Test.

Return To TopOIL QUENCHING. A cooling method for hardening steels, heated above the upper critical temperature, by immersion into liquid oil. This cooling method is normally reserved for medium to high carbon and alloy steels which may crack if hardened by quenching in water.

Return To TopOXALIC ACID ETCH TEST. In this test a highly polished and acid etched (Oxalic acid) surface of austenitic stainless steel is examined at 250 X to 500 X magnification to determine the extent of grain boundary attack. Steels passing this test normally to not require examination by hot acid tests as the Huey Test. See ASTM method A 262 for details.

Return To TopPASSIVATING OR IMMUNIZING. The acid treatment of stainless steels to make them more resistance to corrosion through the formation of a surface film of chromium oxide.

Return To TopPEARLITE. A lamellar microstructure in carbon and alloy steels which consists of alternate layers of ferrite (alpha iron) and cementite (iron carbide) resembling mother-of-pearl.

Return To TopPENETRATING INSPECTION (PT). See Dye Penetrant Testing.

Return To TopPHOSPHORUS. A metallic element normally inherent in steel as a residual from the smelting process. It is normally kept below 0.05% in carbon and alloy steels because of its strong influence on hardness and adverse affect on transverse toughness. When added to free cutting steels in larger quantity it improves machineability of mechanical parts. Sulfur has a similar effect on steel properties.

Return To TopPIG IRON. The high carbon iron product obtained by the reduction of iron ores, typically in a blast furnace or an electric furnace, and cast into uniform shapes (pigs) having physical and chemical characteristics of the material, as foundry melting stock.

Return To TopPICKLING. The removal of surface oxides from metals by immersion in a reducing acid bath. Occasionally a blackish surface smut (a non-adhering carbon film) is produced which must be removed by scrubbing or immersion in an oxidizing acid bath.

Return To TopPIPE. Hollow cylindrical product that is pressure tested and distinguished from pressure tubing by the fact that it is produced in specific sizes with relatively more liberal tolerances.

Return To TopPRESSURE TUBING. Tubing used to conduct fluids under pressure or at elevated temperatures or both, and produced to stricter tolerances than pipe.

Return To TopPRIMARY CARBIDE. Carbide precipitated in cast iron during solidification.

Return To TopQUENCHING. An accelerated cooling method used for increasing the hardness and strength of carbon and alloy steels, which is normally followed by a tempering cycle. Quenching normally implies immersion in a liquid such as water or oil. In the solution treatment of austenitic stainless steels and nickel based alloys a water quench is used to keep carbides in solution. The quench cycle is normally complete when the item being quenched cools to around 212 F (100 C).

Return To TopRADIOGRAPH. A photographic film placed behind the object being radiographed, which shows differences in absorption created by discontinuities, thickness variations or density after being developed.

Return To TopRADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION (RT). A non-destructive method of internal examination in which the metal is penetrated by a beam of x-ray or gamma radiation.

Return To TopREDUCTION OF AREA. As determined in a tensile test this is the difference between the cross-sectional area of the test specimen and the smallest area at the point of rupture.

Return To TopRESIDUAL ELEMENTS. Those metallic elements which are not deliberately added to a grade of steel as alloying elements, but are present because they were inherent in the ore, or scrap, which was used in making the heat of steel. Residual elements are usually present in small quantities under 0.25% each for nickel, chromium, and copper, and under 0.05% each for columbium, titanium, aluminum, etc.

Return To TopROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST. A method for determining the relative hardness of a metal by impressing a diamond indentor, or a 1/16" or 1/8" ball into a ground surface with a prescribed load not exceeding 150Kg. This test is normally used on small hardened parts, or on surfaces where the larger impression made by the Brinell hardness test is undesirable.

Return To TopSAMPLE. One or more portions of a liquid or solid material taken in an unbiased manner from a batch, heat, lot, or process stream to be representtive of the whole, for subsequent testing to determine the chemical, physical, mechanical, or other quality characteristics of the material, or combination thereof.

Return To TopSEAMLESS PIPE. Hot finished pipe made from a reheated billet which is forged into a bottle shape, elongated and subsequently stretched over a mandrel bar by pushing through a series of roller dies. After reheating, reducing rolls give it its final dimensions.

Return To TopSENSITIZATION. The condition resulting from heating, or slow cooling, austenitic stainless steels in the temperature range of 800 F to 1600 F (427 C to 871 C), which permits the formation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries. The formation of carbides reduces the chromium content at the surface of the grains, thereby, reducing corrosion resistance.

Return To TopSHEAR FRACTURE. After Charpy specimens are broken, and the energy absorbed during breaking recorded, the fractured surfaces are visually examined to determine if the fracture has a brittle or ductile appearance. Fractured surfaces which contain both brittle (cleavage) and ductile (shear) areas are classified as to the percentage of shear (ductile) area. A normally specified requirement is 50% minimum shear, which is considered by most pipeline material specification writers as representative of a material's ability to resist crack propagation after a fracture has been initiated.

Return To TopSILICON. A non-metallic element added to steels to deoxidize the molten metal prior to solidification in the ingot mold. In solution silicon strengthens ferrite in steel. It also increases the oxidation resistance of austenitic stainless steels at elevated temperatures.

Return To TopSKELP. Steel plate or sheet from which welded tubing or pipe is manufactured.

Return To TopSMELTING. The heating process for removing metals from their ores. A blast furnace is commonly used for converting iron ore into metallic iron.

Return To TopSOLUTION ANNEALING. Also known as annealing, or carbide solution treating, this process involves the heating of austenitic stainless steels and alloys to an elevated temperature known to ensure that carbides will be dissolved into austenite. After sufficient holding time the material is rapidly cooled, or quenched, to prevent carbides from reforming.

Return To TopSTABILIZATION. The alloying of austenitic stainless steels with elements such as columbium, molybdenum, or titanium which combine with excess carbon to prevent sensitization and the formation of chromium carbides.

Return To TopSTEEL SCRAP. Discarded steel or steel products, generally segregated by composition and size or "grade", suitable for melting.

Return To TopSTRESS RELIEVING. The reduction of residual stresses in a metal part, or welded fabrication, either thermally, or mechanically. Stress relieving is generally considered to be a thermal treatment, wherein the part is heated to a suitable sub-critical temperature and held at temperature long enough to relieve the major stresses and then air cooled. Stress relieving should not be confused with tempering, and must be done at least 50 F to 100 F below the temperature at which the part being stress relieved was tempered.

Return To TopSULFUR. A non-metallic element normally inherent in steel as a residual from the smelting process. It is normally kept below 0.045% in carbon and alloy steels because of its adverse affect on transverse toughness. When added to free cutting steels in larger quantity it improves machineability of mechanical parts. Phosphorous has a similar effect on steel properties.

Return To TopTEMPER BRITTLENESS. The loss of notch toughness in some steels when they are heated in the temperature range of 850 F to 1100 F (450 C to 590 C).

Return To TopTEMPER CARBON. Compact aggregates or nodules of graphite found in malleable iron as a result of heat treatment.

Return To TopTEMPERING. The thermal treatment at a predetermined temperature below the critical range (below 1300 F, 700 C) which follows the quench cycle in heat treatment of carbon and alloy steels. It reduces the as-quenched hardness and significantly improves toughness and impact strength, particularly at low temperatures. Normalized parts may also be tempered to reduce hardness and improve toughness and impact strength.

Return To TopTENSILE STRENGTH. The ultimate stress which a metal undergoes prior to failure as determined by the maximum load observed during testing divided by the cross-sectional area of the tensile specimen. True tensile strength would be the maximum load divided by the actual cross-sectional area of the specimen at the moment the load reading was observed. (See ASTM method A 370).

Return To TopTENSILE TEST. The testing of a tensile specimen to determine the yield strength, ultimate strength, elongation and reduction of area. (See ASTM method A 370).

Return To TopTEST BAR. A bar-shaped coupon that is tested with or without subsequent preparation for the determination of physical or mechanical properties.

Return To TopTEST COUPON. Specially designed casting, or portion thereof, that is used to provide a representative sample of the iron from which it was cast.

Return To TopTEST LUG. A sample produced as an appendage on a casting, that may be removed and tested to qualify the casting or the iron from which it was produced.

Return To TopTEST SPECIMEN. A test object, suitable prepared from a sample, for evaluation of the chemical, physical, mechanical, or metallurgical quality of the sample.

Return To TopTRANSVERSE TENSILE TEST. The specimen shall be located 90 degrees to the axis of the pipe. Not applicable for sizes larger than 8 5/8" in outside diameter.

Return To TopTRANSVERSE WELD TESTS. Specimen is taken 90 degrees to the weld with the weld at the center of the specimen. Not applicable for sizes than 8 5/8" in outside diameter.

Return To TopTREATED IRON. Molten cast iron to which all basic alloys and nodulizing alloys have been added but not necessarily all inoculating alloy additions.

Return To TopULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH. See Tensile Strength.

Return To TopULTRASONIC INSPECTION (UT). A nondestructive test which can detect defects in solid metal objects by directing controlled ultra-high frequency sound waves into the part being inspected. Ultrasonic response of the area being examined is monitored on the screen of a cathode ray tube. The location, size and orientation of defects can be determined. Also, wall thickness variations can be measured and corrosion rates can be monitored.

Return To TopVANADIUM. A metallic element added to steel to improve hardenability and provide secondary hardening. It promotes fine grain by raising the grain coarsening temperature of austenite.

Return To TopWATER QUENCHING. See Quenching.

Return To TopWELD. The fused metal seam which holds two, or more, pieces of metal together.

Return To TopWELDABILITY. The capacity of certain metals and their alloys to be fabricated by welding into structures suitable for the intended service requirements. Various residual, or excessive, elements and inclusions may prohibit the formation of sound welds.

Return To TopWELDING. The process of joining two, or more, pieces of metal together by melting and fusing the parent metal edges together with, or without, filler metal.

Return To TopWHITE IRON. Cast iron in which substantially all of the carbon is in solution and in the combined form. The metal has a white fracture.

Return To TopWROUGHT METAL. A mechanically worked and toughened metal as opposed to an as-cast brittle metal.

Return To TopX-RAY. See Radiographic Inspection (RT).

Return To TopYIELD STRENGTH. The stress under load at which the proportionality between stress and strain in a tensile specimen is no longer equal. From this point on the specimen elongates at a reduces stress level with the increasing load until rupture occurs.

Return To TopZYGLO INSPECTION (PT). A liquid penetrating inspection method using a fluorescent penetrating oil and requiring black light to detect surface indications and defects.


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